How to Write an Abstract for a Scientific Paper

 

write a scientific paper

Writing the Scientific Paper. W hen you write about scientific topics to specialists in a particular scientific field, we call that scientific writing. (When you write to non-specialists about scientific topics, we call that science writing.) T he scientific paper has developed over the past three centuries into a tool to communicate the results of scientific inquiry. HOW TO WRITE AN EFFECTIVE RESEARCH PAPER • Getting ready with data • First draft • Structure of a scientific paper • Selecting a journal • Submission • Revision and galley proof Disclaimer: The suggestions and remarks in this presentation are based on personal research experience. Research practices and approaches vary. The task of writing a scientific paper and submitting it to a journal for publication is a time‐consuming and often daunting task. 3,4 Barriers to effective writing include lack of experience, poor writing habits, writing anxiety, unfamiliarity with the requirements of scholarly writing, lack Cited by:


Guide: Writing the Scientific Paper


The purpose of this invited commentary is to offer practical suggestions for achieving success when writing and submitting manuscripts to The International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy and other professional journals. Conducting scientific and clinical research is only the beginning of the scholarship of discovery. In order for the results of research to be accessible to other professionals and have a potential effect on the greater scientific community, it must be written and published.

Following this review the manuscript is recommended for publication, revision or rejection. Furthermore, peer review manuscript publication systems requiring these technical writing skills can be developed and improved with practice. Clear communication of the findings of research is essential to the growth and development of science 3 and professional practice.

The culmination of the publication process provides not only satisfaction for the write a scientific paper and protection of intellectual property, write a scientific paper also the important function of dissemination of research results, new ideas, and alternate thought; which ultimately facilitates scholarly discourse.

Failure to publish important findings significantly diminishes the potential impact that those findings may have on clinical practice. To begin it might be interesting to learn why reviewers accept manuscripts! Reviewers consider the following five criteria to be the most important in decisions about whether to accept manuscripts write a scientific paper publication: 1 write a scientific paper importance, timeliness, relevance, and prevalence of the problem addressed; 2 the quality of the writing style i.

When you begin writing about your research, begin with a specific target journal in mind. The IJSPT seeks to provide readership with current information write a scientific paper enhance the practice of sports write a scientific paper therapy.

Therefore the manuscript categories accepted by IJSPT include: Original research; Systematic reviews of literature; Clinical commentary and Current concept reviews; Case reports; Clinical suggestions and unique practice techniques; and Technical notes, write a scientific paper.

Once a decision has been made to write a manuscript, compose an outline that complies with the requirements of the target submission journal and has each of the suggested sections. This means carefully checking the submission criteria and preparing your paper in the exact format of the journal to which you intend to submit. Be thoughtful about the distinction between content what you are reporting and structure where it goes in the manuscript, write a scientific paper.

Poor placement of content confuses the reader reviewer and may cause misinterpretation of content. It may be helpful to follow the IMRaD format for writing scientific manuscripts. This acronym stands for the sections contained within the article: Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion. Each of these areas of the manuscript will be addressed in this commentary. Typically the last two portions to be written are the conclusion and the abstract.

Accurate and clear expression of your thoughts and research information should be the primary goal of scientific writing. Contain your literature review, ideas, and discussions to your topic, theme, model, review, commentary, or case.

Avoid vague terminology and too much prose. Use short rather than long sentences. If jargon has to be utilized keep it to a minimum and explain the terms you do use clearly.

Write with a measure of formality, using scientific language and avoiding conjunctions, slang, and discipline or regionally specific nomenclature or terms e. Avoid first person language and instead write using third person language. Some journals do not ascribe to this requirement, and allow first person references, however, IJSPT prefers use of third person.

Problems such as improper use of grammar, tense, and spelling are often a cause of rejection by reviewers. Despite the content of the study these easily fixed errors suggest that the authors created the manuscript with less thought leading reviewers to think that the manuscript may also potentially have erroneous findings as well.

A review from a second set of trained eyes will often catch these errors missed by the original authors. If Write a scientific paper is not your first language, the editorial staff at IJSPT suggests that you consult with someone with the relevant expertise to give you guidance on English writing conventions, verb tense, and grammar. Excellent writing in English is hard, even for those of us for whom it is our first language!

Use figures and graphics to your advantage. Tables should be able to stand alone and be completely understandable at a quick glance. Understanding a table should not require careful review of the manuscript! Figures dramatically enhance the graphic appeal of a scientific paper.

Many formats for graphic presentation are acceptable, including graphs, charts, write a scientific paper, tables, and write a scientific paper or videos. Photographs should be clear, free of clutter or extraneous background distractions and be taken with models wearing simple clothing. Color photographs are preferred. Digital figures Scans or existing files as well as new photographs must be at least dpi. All photographs should be provided as separate files jpeg or tif preferred and not be embedded in the paper.

Quality and clarity of figures are essential for reproduction purposes and should be considered before taking images for the manuscript. A video of an exercise or procedure speaks a thousand words. Please consider using short video clips as descriptive additions to your paper.

Maximum cumulative length of videos is 5 minutes. Each video segment may not exceed 50 MB, and each video clip must be saved as a separate file and clearly identified. Carefully consider placement of, naming of, and location of figures, write a scientific paper. It makes the job write a scientific paper the editors much easier! Avoid Plagiarism and inadvertent lack of citations.

Finally, use citations to your benefit. Cite frequently in order to avoid any plagiarism. The bottom line: If it is not your original idea, give credit where credit is due. When using direct quotations, write a scientific paper, provide not only the number of the citation, but the page where the quote was found. All citations should appear in text as a superscripted number followed by punctuation.

It is the authors' responsibility to fully ensure all references are cited in completed form, in an accurate location. Please carefully follow the instructions for citations and check that all references in your reference list are cited in the paper and that all citations in the paper appear correctly in the reference list. Sometimes written as an afterthought, the abstract is of extreme importance as in many instances this section is what is initially previewed by readership to determine if the remainder of the article is worth reading.

This is the authors opportunity to draw the reader into the study and entice them to read the rest of write a scientific paper article. The abstract is a summary of the article or study written in 3 rd person allowing the readers to get a quick glance of what the contents of the article include.

Writing an write a scientific paper is rather challenging as being brief, accurate and concise are requisite. The headings and structure for an abstract are usually provided in the instructions for authors. In some instances, the abstract may change slightly pending content revisions required during the peer review process. Therefore it often works well to complete this portion of the manuscript last. Remember the abstract should be able to stand alone and should be as succinct as possible.

The introduction is one of the more difficult portions of the manuscript to write. Past studies are used to set the stage or provide the reader with information regarding the necessity of the represented project. For an introduction to work properly, the reader must feel that the research question is clear, concise, and worthy of study.

Don't reach or include too broad of a literature review. For example, write a scientific paper, do write a scientific paper include extraneous information about performance or prevention if your research does not actually address those things. The literature review of a scientific paper is not an exhaustive review of all available knowledge in a given field of study.

That type of thorough review should be left to review articles or textbook chapters. Throughout the introduction and later in the discussion! Conclude your introduction with a solid statement of your purpose s and your hypothesis esas appropriate. The purpose and objectives should clearly relate to the information gap associated with the given manuscript topic discussed earlier in the introduction section.

The methods section should clearly describe the specific design of the study and provide clear and concise description of the procedures that were performed. The purpose of sufficient detail in the methods section is so that an appropriately trained person would be able to replicate your experiments. To assist in writing and manuscript preparation there are several checklists or guidelines that are available on the IJSPT website. Initially a brief paragraph should explain the overall procedures and study design.

Within this first paragraph there is generally a description of inclusion and exclusion criteria which help the reader understand the population used. Paragraphs that follow should describe in more detail the procedures followed for the study. A clear description of how data was gathered is also helpful. For example were data gathered prospectively or retrospectively?

Who if anyone was blinded, and where and when was the actual data collected? Although it is a good write a scientific paper for the authors to have justification and a rationale for their procedures, these should be saved for inclusion into the discussion section, write a scientific paper, not to be discussed in the methods section.

However, occasionally studies supporting components of the methods section such as reliability of tests, or validation of outcome measures may be included in the methods section. The final portion of the methods section write a scientific paper include the statistical methods used to analyze the data. In most journals the results section is separate from the discussion section. It is important that you clearly distinguish your results from your discussion.

The results section should describe the results only. The discussion section should put those results into a broader context. Again, be thoughtful about content and structure. Think carefully about where content is placed in the overall structure of your paper.

It is not appropriate to bring up additional results, not discussed in the results section, write a scientific paper, in the discussion. Thus, the discussion should not simply be a repeat of the results section.

Carefully discuss where your information is similar or different from other published evidence and why this might be so, write a scientific paper. What was different in methods or analysis, what was similar?

As previously stated, stick to your topic at hand, and do not overstretch your discussion!

 

Focus: Education — Career Advice: How to Write Your First Research Paper

 

write a scientific paper

 

Writing the Scientific Paper. W hen you write about scientific topics to specialists in a particular scientific field, we call that scientific writing. (When you write to non-specialists about scientific topics, we call that science writing.) T he scientific paper has developed over the past three centuries into a tool to communicate the results of scientific inquiry. HOW TO WRITE AN EFFECTIVE RESEARCH PAPER • Getting ready with data • First draft • Structure of a scientific paper • Selecting a journal • Submission • Revision and galley proof Disclaimer: The suggestions and remarks in this presentation are based on personal research experience. Research practices and approaches vary. Jun 26,  · Write the paper before writing the abstract. You might be tempted to start with the abstract since it comes between the title page and the paper, but it's much easier to summarize a paper or report after it has been completed. Write in the third person.